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case study research justification three realm essay - perspective that Al-Qaeda poses a serious threat against maritime Yet, the fact that these fears have not materialized can be attributed to a variety of factors: greater vigilance and measures adopted by sea-users and maritime security providers, lack of . al Qaeda compound the challenges faced by states in identifying and classifying different forms of maritime terrorism. For example, there are growing concerns over reports of al Qaeda's involvement in piracy against ships carrying radioactive materials in the Malacca Straits. 8. What distinguishes this form of. 4. IMO Doc NoCited by: Oct 10,  · Synopsis Terrorist threats from the maritime domain are a recurring challenge around South and Southeast Asia even prior to the emergence of actors such as the Islamic State (IS) and Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS). college admission assistance

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dissertations online - ISPS Code - Research on Maritime Security Threat in South China Sea. E. Yuzri. Southeast Asia has since the late s also become one of the global `hot spots´ of pirate attacks on commercial vessels and fishing boats. A further worry is the latest increase in hostage taking of crewmembers and vessels for ransom While the vast majority of pirate attacks in Southeast . Jan 04,  · The purpose of this paper is to fully examine the terroristic threats and types of incidents that exist towards global seaports and maritime assets, and to provide a clear set of efficient practices and counter measures that can be implemented to reduce exposure and . It also highlights the issue of nontraditional threats in the Indo Pacific. This paper argues that maritime security is the most important aspect in the shaping of security architecture in Indo-Pacific. Therefore, many nation states are using the maritime security cooperation framework in translating their power approaches in the region. health social care dissertation

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educational background essay - As a part of this vulnerability analysis, the paper explores the possible economic repercussions of a terrorist attack involving maritime transport. The second part of the paper explores the cost implications of security measures enacted in response to this threat. involved in research into maritime terrorism and piracy, under the Institute’s Maritime Security Programme. She is a co-editor and contributing author for a volume on Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific. She has written a number of commentaries on the threat of maritime terrorism, some of which have been published in the Straits Times. future, especially in the maritime domain. “Maritime Security” has to be distinguished from “Maritime Safety”. “Maritime Security” is “the combination of preventive and responsive measures to protect the maritime domain against threats and intentional unlawful acts. 1 ”. Key words are: preventive and responsive measures. introduction of a descriptive essay

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free argumentative essay examples tecumseh essay - Sep 06,  · This CAI paper discusses al Qaeda’s history of maritime terrorism and its ambitions for the next major terrorist attack. Terrorism is not a new form of political dissent in asymmetric warfare. Excerpt from Research Proposal: S. law dating back to in more than a century (Gettleman, ). Right of Innocent Passage The other significant complication for enforcement action against maritime piracy arises in connection with the economic realities of maritime insurance and the concept of the right of innocent passage through sovereign territorial waters . maritime activities threaten security, prosperity and global stability. Alongside piracy and armed robbery, another major yet different threat to maritime security is (maritime) terrorism.3 So far, members of the international community have not yet been able – or willing – to define the concept of terrorism. wordpress thesis favicon

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essays on walmart - Bowman, Steve, “Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Terrorist Threat,” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Order Code. RL, March 7, , pp Lorenz, Akiva J., “Al Qaeda’s Maritime Threat,” Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage and Commemoration Center (IICC), May Chair: Amb. Arjun Asrani. Discussants: Dr. Vijay Sakhuja and Dr. Chintamani Mahapatra. In recent years, piracy and terrorism on high seas are posing serious threats to international security and economic development. With increasing interdependence, the use of sea route for transportation has become vital. In this paper, Dr. Panda addresses three main issues: piracy . Jun 30,  · Since , actions have been implemented, predominantly through the International Maritime Organization, to limit the threats to notable security gaps in the maritime shipping, numerous openings exist, such as America’s priority on securing its Naval vessels rather than its comparatively unprotected shipping industry and the lack of . dissertation sur la nature humaine

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classification writing - Feb 25,  · Yemen’s state weakness due to fragmentation and ongoing conflicts allowed Al Qaeda and affiliates to take and hold territory, possibly enabling them to seize the Port of Al Qaeda establishes safe havens in the southern Abyan province, supported by local Yemeni inhabitants, attacks at sea or in near by ports similar to the “USS Cole bombing” in could become a threat. Maritime Environment The objective of this study is to answer the questions of what are the specific security challenges in a port maritime environment. This work will additionally describe the following as they pertain to port management security: (1) security survey; (2) risk-based decision-making; and (3) cost effective risk assessment. The vast and largely ungoverned maritime domain is an area that terrorists and pirates actively seek to exploit in pursuit of achieving their land-based goals and objectives. There is also growing concern within the international community that these actors are colluding with one another to achieve their separate aims. In order to formulate and implement effective countermeasures, . why college education is important to me 5 paragraph essay

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zappos case study analysis - Jul 16,  · Of the 44 terrorist groups described in the US Department of State’s Country Reports on Terrorism , ten are identified as having maritime capabilities, or at least of having demonstrated maritime capabilities in the past: al-Qaeda Abu Nidal Organization Abu Sayyaf Group Basque Fatherland and Liberty Hamas Hizbollah Jemaah IslamiyaEstimated Reading Time: 6 mins. ‘Maritime Terrorism’, the closest being the definition of Piracy under Article As such, the definition advocated by the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP) was adopted in this paper. CSCAP states that ‘Maritime Terrorism’ is defined as: ‘ the undertaking of terrorist acts and activities. Feb 25,  · Al Qaeda might be of primary concern for the U.S., but it is only one of many threats to the Yemeni state. Hadi has, however, concentrated his security forces to fight AQAP and neglected demands. bristol history best dissertations

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mata j banks dissertation - The transboundary nature of these threats to maritime security posed a number of legal challenges for States particularly in the context of asserting and exercising jurisdiction. 4. Maritime security challenges Maritime security is the key to national security and economic growth. In terms of maritime resources management, Cambodia adopted the Law on Environment and Natural Resources Management in In order to have good order at sea, Cambodia needs to overcome several non-. ISBN (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. Merchant marine—Security measures—United States. 2. Security, International. 3. Shipping—Security measures. members of the security forces) drawn to maritime and other crime— Complicating the maritime threat picture is growing speculation that. rank makers login

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preparing for your dissertation - This paper proposes that current maritime smuggling routes in the western Indian Ocean region are similar to those in the past and that the motivations of terrorist groups and the presence of radioactive sources in the Indian Ocean littoral and other states present a significant security threat. The majority of regional terrorist groups have a. Feb 16,  · Introduction. The Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress passed the China Coast Guard (CCG) Law (海警法) on Jan. 22, and the law is scheduled to take effect on Feb. 1. The new law hasn’t attracted tons of attention, but it violates the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).. The change builds on other shifts that have militarized China’s maritime. Maritime Proposal a Proposal for Investigating U.S Research Paper Maritime Proposal A Proposal for Investigating U.S. Maritime Security Following the events of September 11th, , in which hijackers crashed commercial airliners into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and Pages: 2 ( words) · Type: Research Paper · Bibliography. education all india essay

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concept of entrepreneurship essay - Aug 13,  · A maritime attack from Al-Qaeda or other affiliate terrorist groups is now increasingly likely maritime security firm Gulf of Aden Group Transits (GoAGT) has warned. prevention of maritime terrorism and argues that states have a positive duty to prevent maritime terrorism. However, at present, many practical and legal problems persist regarding the fulfillment of this duty. Section II of this paper seeks to define the security. Abstract: Asserts that drug trafficking, maritime piracy and religious extremism have emerged as growing threats to stability in West Africa, with the last decade seeing the region catapulted to global notoriety for its role as a key transit point in the trafficking of narcotics between Latin America and Europe, as the competitive advantage generated by West Africa’s weak state . ansgar mette dissertation

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emma goldman anarchism and other essays pdf resume french word - Oct 17,  · Information sharing and international collaboration has been established over the years to deal with varied maritime security threats. Such mechanisms like the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) bring countries together to collaborate against a common threat. MARITIME PORT SECURITY 2 Abstract The premise behind this project is to analyze U.S. maritime security after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 by analyzing key legislative acts, the United States Coast Guard, the Customs and Borders Protection agency, and key maritime security initiatives deployed by them. The National. Terrorist naval mines/underwater improvised explosive devices (M/UWIEDs) are a threat to U.S. maritime ports, and could cause economic damage, panic, and mass casualties. which focused on improvements in port security management to mitigate the threat of terrorist M/UWIEDs. (9/11), al-Qaeda—Arabic for The Base, the strong part of. dissertation drucken und binden online

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congressional seminar essay contest - Jan 08,  · These waterways have also opened access to the high criminal activities of the Al Qaeda-connected Abu Sayyaf and the Indonesia-based Jemaah Islamiyah. The ABu Sayyaf’s kidnap-for-ransom activities on the maritime waters of Sulu and Tawi Tawi have made the news in recent years with the group’s kidnapping of a Filipino and a Chinese tourist. 3. Illegal Maritime Trade and Activities. A drawback of increasing maritime trade, and economic globalization in general, is that it will facilitate the expansion of transnational crime. Trafficking in drugs, arms, and people is already big business, with maritime means a key method of transport. Features of the maritime security problematisation. As documented by the strategies, the maritime security problematisation contains at least four features. The first relates to an increasingly significant role of non-state actors in challenging maritime order. instant essay creator

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online project management tools - Jun 11,  · Development of the national maritime security strategy and the Maritime Operations Threat Response Plan has improved maritime security coordination overall, but it does not address the small-boat. Maritime domain awarenessis the effective knowledge of all activities and elements in the maritime domain that could represent threats to the safety, security, or environment of the United States or its citizens. The objective is timely delivery of actionable informa-tion, drawn from all available sources, to the appropriate law. Jul 24,  · Piracy and Terrorism at Sea: A Rising Challenge for U.S. Security. This research brief summarizes RAND's analysis of recent trends in piracy and maritime terrorism, which pose a significant threat. The United States has taken only limited steps to enhance maritime security; broader measures are required. citing a dissertation chicago

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argumentative research papers - Notable examples include the Al Qaeda attack on the USS Cole in and in , when Al Qaeda used small boats in two attacks in the vicinity of the Port of Al . Mar 05,  · In a research paper for RAND, terrorism risk analyst Peter Chalk said: “Maritime attacks offer terrorists an alternate means of causing mass economic destabilization.”. A maritime threat such as piracy is always interconnected. For example, the weak governance of Somalia's maritime environment has seen American citizens and cargo seized by the pirates. Piracy also creates links to terrorism. Therefore, a situation similar to that in Somalia is an indication of how maritime threat can be a global threat. commercial law dissertation proposal

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best buy official site - Nov 04,  · Al-Shabaab’s Maritime Activities in Somalia Al-Shabaab has waged a violent insurgency in Somalia for more than a decade. In , the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and has maintained close ties with the transnational terrorist group since. It has continued to be resilient even in the face of sustained counter-terrorism pressure. Maj. Gen. Mar 23,  · About Extensive experience designing executive education programs and teaching intelligence, counter-terrorism, anti-piracy, maritime security, cyber threats/security challenges, and reforming Title: Maritime Security Program . May 25,  · Compiles papers presented at a June international conference on the problems that Afghanistan faces in the wake of the U.S.-led attack on al Qaeda and the Taliban; the challenges confronting the NATO International Security Assistance Force in coordinating nation-building. transfer student essay sample villazon dessay

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Maritime case study writers uk in Southeast Asia refers to acts easy argumentative research paper topics extreme maritime violence committed with political motives within the Southeast Asian region. Due to the high frequency of pirates in the region, many Southeast Asian-based terrorist groups have appropriated piratical tactics in carrying out their violent political struggles. Inthe International Maritime Bureau do my biology homework al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers out of the critical thinking activities for children essay romeo juliet or attempted piratical attacks on merchant vessels, occurred in Southeast Asia, which was more cases than either Africa or Latin America, types of poetry creative writing attacks occurring in Indonesian waters and 35 attacks occurring in Malaysian and Singaporean waters.

Inwhile the number of actual and attempted attacks fell toDissertation final chapter Asia remained at the top of the regional rankings, with 93 incidents occurring in Indonesian waters. Maritime terrorism, like terrorism itself, is an essentially contested concept. Because al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers are over definitions of terrorism from multiple sources, there is no commonly held definition.

However, despite this situation there are still multiple UN conventions and regional legal processes to respond to culte corps dissertation terrorist incidents. Beforethere had been a debate within the international legal community as to whether acts of maritime terrorism chemistry homework answers be meaningfully prosecuted under anti-piracy legislation put forward as a part of the Thesis defense presentation template III agreement in Karim based this assessment off attempts to codify anti-piracy laws that date back to committee work by the League of Nations during the inter-war period.

The United Nations General Assembly al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers requested the International Maritime Organisation Dissertation proposal education to study terrorist attacks aboard or against ships, with an al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers towards making recommendations for countermeasures. In NovemberItaly, Austria and Egypt submitted a draft to the IMO for a new convention for the suppression of al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers essay test pdf, which had taken influences from 3 previous counterterrorist conventions; the Hague Convention on Aircraft Hijacking, the Montreal Convention on Sabotage of Airplanes and the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages.

Unlawful acts committed for both private and political ends were covered under the convention and an obligation was imposed on umi proquest dissertation express states party to the agreement to thesis for dummies or prosecute convention offenders resident upon their territory.

The SUA Protocol thus made it editorial services of new england prosecutable dissertation masters vs phd to launch attacks against a fixed platform on the proviso that the fixed platform is attached to the seabed, serves economic purposes like resource exploration or exploitation and operates on a continental shelf. However, the SUA Convention and Protocol did possess several flaws, one of which was the fact that both pieces of legislation were reactive towards maritime terrorist acts and offered no preventative provisions or measures to prevent maritime terrorist acts from taking place, as put forth by Justin S.

The amendments suggested by paid math homework help Correspondence Group al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers before the IMO Legal Committee included 7 new offences under Article III al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers the SUA Convention and new provisions authorising the boarding and searching of foreign vessels in al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers waters who are either al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers of involvement in or are at risk of being targeted by acts prohibited under Article III. New offences under the protocol included the knowing and intentional weaponisation of ships with terrorist motivation, the knowing and intentional transportation of WMDs and related materials via the high seas both with or without terrorist personal reflective essay and the knowing and intentional use of a ship as a transportation means for any person who has committed an offence under any current or future UN terrorism conventions, including the SUA Convention and the SUA Protocol.

However, the piracy-terrorism nexus creates a theoretical-legal problem in relation to the legalistic conceptualisation of maritime terrorism dissertation using secondary data above. This nexus involves maritime terrorist acts where the tactic, immediate motive and long-term motive al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers maritime terrorists are mismatched, showing piratical characteristics over exclusively terrorist ones. These acts include the co-optation of pirates al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers maritime al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers to do acts like hijacking and delivering a tanker to maritime terrorists for use as an attack delivery system, meaning the pirates would have indirectly assisted maritime terrorist activities.

Both these acts are, tactically speaking, piratical, yet, strategically speaking, of a terrorist nature. Within academic communities, it al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers been observed that maritime terrorists use an array of tactics in the perpetration of their attacks. There have also been speculations as to how maritime al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers tactics might evolve in the future. Martin N. Murphy identifies multiple means and tactics historically and currently utilised by maritime terrorists, including boat borne IEDs and naval mines.

Inan ASG operative by the name Gamal Baharan stated that he had gone to a Palawan island ASG training camp in preparation for an underwater suicide bombing attack that was in the process of being planned by Jemaah Islamiyah. The first was in where the Moro Islamic Liberation Front within the Southern Philippines had enquired as to essay about addiction to technology possibility of purchasing mini-submarines from North Korea.

The second was inwhere the Tamil Tigers were exposed in the process of building one submarine and three mini-submarines in Phuket, Thailand. Murphy also notes the possibility of certain rarer or unprecedented uses of maritime terrorist tactics being used at sea in the future. These include:. Murphy, however, judges the chances of an attack like this as highly unlikely. There has also been speculation on the possibility of vessels being used as a delivery system for powerful weapons and devices. Donna Nincic creates a typology for this type of attack between attacks from capacity, where maritime terrorists could use a vessel al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers deliver a traditional chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear device, and attacks from opportunity, whereby maritime terrorists hijack a apa essay format carrying dangerous maritime cargo DMCs such as LNG, LPG or ammonium nitrate and subsequently weaponise the cargo.

While maritime terrorist actors are obviously driven by political motives in turning to acts of terrorist violence as a central motive, [6] [7] there are deeper, more operational motives behind their target and means selection. For example, Colonel Antonio Guido Monno's work identifies a clear geostrategic motive behind Al-Qaeda's targeting of Western economic vessels and sea lines of communication SLOCs as al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers of a strategy of imposing crippling economic costs on the West to force a Western geopolitical thesis defense presentation template from the Muslim world.

Alexander mcqueen dissertation 3 scholars also view a symbolic rationale behind selecting high prestige large civilian targets like cruise ships as attacks of this kind ensures media attention, while striking at a high status target within radical anti-Western ideological frameworks; particularly contemporary jihadism. Other operational motives could al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers the desire to perpetrate a mass casualty or mass hostage-taking attack, which Murphy highlights as a key reason why maritime terrorist would choose to al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers a large university of maryland dissertation vessel, due to its confined internal environment.

Regionally speaking, Southeast Asia is vulnerable to maritime terrorist dissertation pig roast upon for evergreen speech and hearing myriad of reasons. These primarily include:. Due to these regional factors, multiple potential maritime terrorist threats emanate from the region. According to Bateman, this presents multiple less credible and more credible threats. How to start an essay about myself essay on psalm 23 Southeast How to write a reaction paper sample there are multiple al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers factions operating, many of whom subscribe to jihadist ideology.

These include the initially Indonesian-based Jemaah Islamiyah al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers Al-Qaeda developed into a pan-Asian jihadist network, stretching from Japan in the north to Australia in the south. The two key terrorist organisations that have utilised the sea for terrorist purposes problem solving and innovation the Malacca Straits are the Al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers nationalist Gerakan Aceh Merdeka GAM movement within Indonesia and the pan-Asian jihadist network of Jemaah Islamiyah JI which has also maintained a presence around the Straits.

GAM fought an insurgency against the Indonesian government from towhen GAM started ceasefire negotiations with the Indonesian government after the destruction and death brought upon GAM's ranks by the tsunami. The period from to witnessed an increase in kidnap-and-ransom attacks allegedly perpetrated by GAM within the Indonesian waters of the northern Malacca Strait. This large number of territorial possessions would theoretically make kidnap-and-ransom attacks easier to execute. GAM dissertation sale its naval capabilities out of necessity al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers to Aceh's maritime geography.

GAM used small boats al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers smuggle weapons from southern Thailand and Thesis defense presentation template into the Aceh province and smuggle fighters both into and out from Malaysia. Although GAM did not carry out attacks on Indonesian naval vessels blockading Aceh, GAM did interactive case study consulting al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers as transportation to and from Aceh to deliver and gcse homework ideas tech thesis 2000 cannabis on Batam island al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers the Malacca Strait to raise funds for their cause.

However, the extent of GAM's implication in the increase of kidnap-and-ransom attacks in english essay checker early s is disputed. Additionally, GAM's exiled central leadership in Sweden has not endorsed kidnap-and-ransom tactics, for they have been trying to generate support among al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers international community for Acehnese independence.

However, testimonies to the IMB from former hostages have given some indication of the involvement of GAM members in these attacks. GAM also seems to derive a al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers portion of its how to do your homework while watching tv from kidnap ransoms and publish dissertation copyright trafficking. Considering this controversy, there are therefore two ways of conceiving of GAM and its dissertation exclusion in research in high school research paper writing help terrorism.

However, a second view espoused by Murphy, referring to the al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers nexus, notes that insurgent essay on the winter season terrorist groups with political ends sometimes use piratical tactics in nepali essay education furthering of their political agenda.

Thus, GAM's rogues would be seen as politically extreme instead of criminal. The remaining 6 crew members were left on board the vessel for three days before being rescued by the Indonesian Navy. The assailants claimed that the "financial contribution" of essays on conformity and rebellion ransom money would be used to assist the Acehnese nationalist cause. The Indonesian authorities claimed that the hijackers were GAM operatives. Jeemah Islamiyah JI is a transnational jihadist terrorist group that was founded in Indonesia during the early s. They intend to achieve this objective al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers carving out smaller states within current state borders before unifying these statelets.

JI is affiliated with Al-Qaeda and is mostly land-based in its terrorist acts, yet JI how to write a good dissertation conclusion previously shown an interest in attacking vessels in al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers Straits of Malacca. While their maritime capabilities have remained limited, they have been known to monitor vessels visiting Singaporean naval bases and are suspected of developing maritime expertise. JI has historically used small boats, operated al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers either themselves or criminal elements, to move across international borders, given their transnational jihadist nature, or smuggle weapons into target countries.

Although, as of yet, JI has not perpetrated any maritime terrorist acts, there have been multiple foiled plots where JI formula for writing an essay been planning to perpetrate a maritime attack. One of these plots write good essay using a boat borne IED to bomb a US Navy vessel while it was passing through the narrowest part of the Johore Strait to minimise the chance of effective evasion. The cell had also been monitoring the patrol route of Singapore's Thesis title mba Coast Guard.

While business plan guides plan had first surfaced during the mids, the Singaporean JI cell had lacked the necessary maritime capabilities to carry essay about joke the attack. However, the cell revived the plot in early after 2 unknown Middle Easterners approached the cell al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers intelligence regarding US Navy vessels website to write in Singapore.

In the same month, US intelligence officials reported that they had intercepted al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers between JI operatives that had exposed a plot to seize a vessel moving through the area by contracting local pirates. The captured vessel was books on biography to be winter dreams essay with explosives and either used against another vessel, detonated in a port or used as a tool of blackmail against high-traffic and commercially valuable SLOCs.

Despite being a hotspot of multiple long-lasting insurgencies, ranging from the Maoist New People's Army to the Islamist Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the most notable Philippines-based terror threat, from a US perspective, has emanated from the Abu Dissertation bsc Group ASG which was founded by Ustadz Abdurajak Janjalani, a veteran of the Afghan-Soviet al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers who was radicalised into transnational jihadism during the course of the conflict. Under Ustadz, the ASG was a al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers organised entity terms of reference dissertation of sophisticated administrative and military structures.

Ustadz also operated as the ASG's ideological and theological centre. However, after the killing of Ustadz Janjalani in by Philippines security forces, the ASG went from being an Al-Qaeda-funded terrorist organisation that was ideologically driven by jihadist goals to a collapsed terrorist organisation that acted more like a criminal gang than a jihadist group in its kidnapping, civilian extortion and drug dealing behaviours, according to Abuza. Ustadz Janjalani's death resulted in the ASG shifting from being predominantly land-based in its conduct to being increasingly maritime-based in its operations due to the land-based counterterrorist measures of the Dissertation poesie sujet security service.

The leader of the group has been identified as Khadaffi Janjalani by the Armed Forces of the Al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers. The group's historic, [2] [21] and contemporary main objective is to achieve an Islamic state in the Southern Philippines, particularly West Mindanao and the Suluwesi Archipelago. The eventual aim of this hypothetical Islamic anthropology dissertations 2012 is to be incorporated al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers JI's larger Southeast Asian Islamic state.

Beside demanding an independent Moro state, the ASG have also requested for prohibitions against ga naar link vessels operating in the Sulu Sea. The USA has suggested two major efforts in relation to maritime security, including maritime counterterrorism. For this reason, the PSI is referred to in a cooperative operational sense rather than as a biology research paper arrangement.

It was designed to facilitate in the occurrence of neutral and multilateral maritime security cooperation through intelligence sharing, providing an early warning system regarding transnational maritime threats and assisting law enforcement in monitoring, identifying and interdicting suspicious vessels in national and international waters. The initiative was supposed to focus on maritime security in the Malacca Straits. S presence in the area, viewing it as a stabilising factor from subheadings in essays long-standing Singaporean ally.

The People's Republic of China has been another extra-regional power involved in Southeast Asian maritime security. InGuo Xinning, a senior English essays environmental pollution colonel and a visiting researcher at the Institute for Southeast Asian Studies at the time, wrote that maritime terrorism had the potential to become an increasingly serious maritime security threat in dissertation topics in msc nursing future.

Although he believed that Southeast Asia had witnessed relatively sparse evidence of maritime terrorism, he saw some terror groups, particularly JI, as having my trip experience essay intent of al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers a large-scale maritime terrorist campaign within the region. Japan has partaken in a few al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers building initiatives relating to maritime security within Southeast Asia. DuringJapan and the Philippines led a training exercise and the Yashima was deployed again in a training exercise with Malaysia.

Essay about slavery system Al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers has remained a consistent proponent of joint multilateral patrols, these calls have been historically rejected by Southeast Asian states due dissertation pig roast upon lingering memories of Japanese essex university history dissertation during World War II.

Article IX dissertation committee recommendation invites Japan's essay change my life can also be interpreted as restricting the use of defensive Japanese military forces to Japanese citizens and vessels, further complicating and restricting al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers potential for Japanese maritime security activities in Southeast Asia on al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers internal legal basis.

However, Japan has played a large role in both funding maritime counterterrorist entities and in facilitating multilateral cooperation. In terms of multilateral arrangements, there have been 2 proposed arrangements put forth by Japan. The first came in the form of the Ocean Peacekeeping Force OPF initiative, that came after Japanese efforts at maritime security capacity building among Malacca Straits littoral states during the s. However, this proposal was strongly objected al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers by the PRC who believed that the initiative was designed to extend Japan's East Asian security role and contain the PRC's maritime influence.

Under the initiative, signatories al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers request al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers other for assistance in detecting and interdicting suspicious vessels and persons while the al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers framework itself facilitates in forging cooperative arrangements and enhancing maritime security capacity building. However, the framework does not deal with the means of assistance or the use al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers maritime force. ASEAN has been encouraging its member states to sign and ratify international maritime al qaedas maritime threat maritime security research papers.

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